May 4, 2012

PM0010 [Introduction to Project Management] Set1 Q3

Q 3. a. Describe the major types of stakeholders in a project.

Ans:
According to PMI's guide to PMBoK, project stakeholders are 'individuals and organisations actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be positively or negatively affected as a result of project execution or project completion

According to Stanford Research Institute stakeholders are those groups without whose support the organisation would cease to exist


The major stakeholders of a project are: 

  • Project Manager 
  • Customer 
  • Performing Organisation 
  • Project Team Members 
  • Sponsor 
  • Society 


Project Manager 
Project manager is the interface between the customer and other internal stakeholders. The project manager holds the responsibility for the successful implementation of the project and is an important stakeholder. 

Customer 
Customers are the internal or external group of individuals who directly affect the project. The aim of the project is to create a product, service or facility based on customer requirements and to deliver it to the customer. Hence, the project team must consider all requirements of the customer while creating the deliverable. 


The customer can be any one of the following: 
# Internal customer: They are individuals within the parent organisation. For example, the IT department is assigned to provide a software package for the accounts department. The accounts department is the internal customer. 
# Intermediate customer: They are external to the company but not the final user of the product. For example, distributors and wholesalers. 
# External customer: They are individuals or organisations that pay for and use the final product. 

Performing Organisation 
The performing organisation is the enterprise whose employees are most directly involved in performing the work of the project. Therefore, the project contributes towards achieving the corporate goals of the performing organisation. 

In addition, there are several other stakeholders like project owner, fund providers, suppliers or contractors, government agencies and media outlets and the society. Stakeholder roles and responsibilities may overlap. For example, when an engineering firm finances a plant it is in the designing or construction field, the role of the engineering firm changes from performing organisation to sponsor for the projects undertaken by the designing or construction company. The naming or grouping of stakeholders is primarily an aid to identify individuals or organisations who view themselves as stakeholders. 

Project Team Members 
Team members working in their individual areas of expertise play a crucial role in the success of the project. They work directly with or under the project manager depending on the organisation structure adopted for the project. The project manager, therefore, uses team building skills to ensure that the team members work as a team. 

Sponsor 
The sponsor is an individual or a group within or external to the parent organisation who arranges the financial resources in cash or in kind for the project. The sponsor may be a senior executive of an organisation or a junior manager with formal authority who is responsible for the project thus, acting as a link between the project and the performing organisation. 

b. Describe the major type of Organisational structure in Detail.

Organisational structure has a significant impact on the functioning of a project manager. To enable successful completion of a project, it is important that the resources required for project implementation flow freely from the organisation to the project. 

There are three types of organisational structures: 
Functional organisation is a hierarchical structure. It defines a clear Superior-Subordinate relationship, i.e, the line of control is clear. Each department carries out work in its area of specialisation and employees in each department work with its respective expertise within the department's line of control. In a manufacturing organisation, the different departments are production, finance, marketing, quality control, engineering, administration, personnel ands so on. If a new product is to be developed, the engineering department handles only the design development phase of the product. If answers to questions concerning manufacturing, marketing or quality control are found, the query is passed on to the respective department through formal communication channels. 

$ Project-based organisations are designed to provide near total authority to the project manager. The project manager directs work and sets priorities to employees assigned to the project manager for the project. Functional departments exist in this organisation, but the groups working in these departments report directly to the project manager in the execution of various projects. 

$ Matrix-based organisations combine the features of functional and project-based organisational structures. In this type of organisational structure, project managers and functional managers have equal authority, which implies that the functional staff member reports to both  project manager and their functional manager. This constitutes a dual reporting system for each functional staff member. 

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