May 6, 2018

PM0013 [Managing Human Resources in Projects] Set1 Q5

Q.5 what do we mean by developing a project team process. Enumerate the 5 stages of team development.

Ans:

Developing the Project Team
The business-to-business environment is changing, and those changes are per manent. Organizations are routinely outsourcing processes that are not part of their core business or core expertise. There are two reasons for choosing to use contract team members instead of the company’s own employees:
· Shortage of staff
· Shortage of skills

Those shortages have made it possible for a whole new type of business to grow – tech-temps are the name we associate with this new business opportu nity. The day of the small contractor and niche market player is here to stay. To the project manager, this brings the need to effectively manage a team whose membership will probably include outside contractors. Some may be with the project for only a short time. Others may be no different from core teams except they are not employees of your company.

Typically, contracted team members are available for only short periods of time on the project. They possess a skill that is needed for just a brief time. They are assigned to the project when it is time for them to contribute their skills. As soon as they have completed their assigned task, they leave the project.

Organizing the Project Team
Now that you have identified the individuals who will become the project team, it is time to make them function as a team. Remember right now that they are a herd of cats; they are not a team – at least not yet. First, we’ll briefly look at authority and responsibility, then several procedural matters that the team will have to discuss and agree on.

Authority
Authority and responsibility go hand in hand. To have one and not the other makes no sense. How often have we been in situations where we were respon sible for making a certain thing happen but had no authority over the resources needed to make it happen or no authority to make and carry out a decision? To be effective, the project manager must have authority over the" project. It is his or her job to get the project done on time, within budget, and according to specification. That authority is often delegated, but it is the project manager who is ultimately responsible.

The major difficulty that project managers have is that the project team is not their line responsibility. Team members are assigned based on their expertise but report to other managers, which means that the project manager will have to exercise the best leadership skills and diplomacy to get the job done. The key is in the project planning activities that schedule resources to windows of time. It is here that the resource manager makes the commitment of people resources. Honoring that commitment within the time allotted reduces the incidence of problems. If the project manager remembers to keep the resource managers involved and aware of all project changes, negotiations will proceed better when circumstances warrant.

Responsibility
There is no question where the responsibility lies. This responsibility cannot be delegated. The project manager assigns activity management responsibility to team members. They are then responsible for completing their assigned activ ity within its scheduled window of time and for producing the activity deliv erables on time according to specification. It is the project manager, though, who is ultimately responsible for completing the project as expected. In con veying this sense of responsibility to each team member, the project manager must exercise sound leadership and management skills. He or she will do this by maintaining a consistent level of interest in and communication with each of their activity managers, by involving them and engaging them in planning, change management deliberations, and problem resolution. He or she will keep everybody on the team informed of project status.

Balancing a Team
Balance on the team is a critical success factor for any team that hopes to suc cessfully complete its project. There are several ways to measure balance and several characteristics of the team that have been used to define balance. Let’s take a simple example – learning styles. Learning styles are measured using an instrument, the Learning Styles Inventory (LSI), which was developed by David Kolb in 1981. Kolb identifies four learning styles:

Assimilating. Assimilators are people who excel at collecting and repre senting data in crisp logical form. They are focused on ideas and concepts rather than people. These individuals like to put data and information together into models that explain the situation from a larger perspective. As a result, they are more interested in something making sense logically than they are in any practical value. They are not results-oriented people. These types of individuals are generally found in the more technical or specialist careers, such as developers.

Diverging. These individuals like to look at alternatives and view the situation from a variety of perspectives. They would rather observe than take action. Divergers like brainstorming and generally have a broad range of interests and like together information. On a project team these people will often suggest outside-the-box thinking and offer suggestions for other approaches than those that may have already been identified.

Accommodating. These individuals are results-oriented and want to put things into practice. They are adaptive and can easily change with the circumstances. Accommodators are people persons. They are strong at imple mentation and hands-on activities and are good team players. They tend to be action-oriented and more spontaneous than logical. As problem solvers they rely on people for input rather than on any technical analysis. On the project team you can count on these people to help foster a strong sense of teamwork, and they will often be found facilitating the working together of team members. They will often be the peacekeepers as well.

Converging. These individuals like to assemble information in order to solve problems. They like to converge to the correct solution. Convergers are the solution finders but not the solution implementers. Their strength lies in their ability to take concepts, models, and ideas and turn them into practical use. They are not particularly people-oriented and would rather work with technical tasks and problems. They are good at picking the best option among a number of alternatives. On the project team these will be the results-oriented members. They will drive the team into action by help ing it focus on which approach to a situation is best and then mobilizing the team into action.

Now suppose you have a team that is loaded with convergers and does not have a single diverger among their members. What do you think might hap pen? With no one on the team to encourage looking for alternatives (the role of the diverger), you would very likely have a rush to judgment, or "group think," as the convergers press the team into action. We have personally wit nessed many situations where a single approach to a problem is presented, and the convergers on the team aggressively suggest that the team go forward with the single proposed solution without even considering whether there is an alternative. Teams that are involved in high-technology projects are likely to display this behavior. A team that has balanced learning styles among its members is a team that is prepared to do a very good job at solving problems and making decisions.

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