## May 9, 2012

### PM0017 [Project Quality Management] Set2 Q3

Q 3.List and describe in brief the tools and techniques used for quality control.

Ans:

http://smu-mba-mb00.blogspot.com/2012/05/introduction-to-project-management.html

Tools and techniques used for quality control

Some of the tools and techniques used for quality control:

Cause and Effect diagrams
This is also known as fishbone diagram or Ishikawa diagram, which shows how various, causes and sub causes relate to create potential problems or effects. This diagram shows the association between various events, and is a valuable analysis in developing ideas and in discovering the root cause of any problem. Figure  illustrates a generic cause-and-effect diagram.

Control charts
Control charts are used to determine whether or not a process is stable or has predictable performance.

Flowcharting
A flowchart is a graphical representation of a process showing the relationship among process steps.

Histogram
Histograms show a visual summary of the data, which is simple to understand. It is difficult to comprehend when data is presented in varieties, it is difficult to understand. In such cases this tool can be used. It is a type of bar graph that deals with data that exists in a continuous range from a lower number to a higher number. It displays the frequency of occurrence of an individual data points across the data from low to high. Histogram can be more easily understood than a table of collected numbers.

Pareto diagram
A Pareto diagram is a unique category of bar diagram that displays the relative frequency of several problems or actions. It shows the essential causes and assists in choosing the development efforts that are necessary to solve the problem on sequential basis.

Pareto diagram is a problem-solving tool generally used for sorting out the significant causes that adds to a leading share of quality loss. There are various factors that have to be enhanced: defectives, time allotment, cost savings, etc. Each problem comprises of many minor problems that are complicated to know how to solve them.

Run chart
Process performances can be observed overtime using run charts. It is a line graph with data that vary around a centreline, usually the mean. It is used for processes that repeat, where performance is expected to be stable. It is a line graph that shows data plotted in the order in which they occur. Run charts show trends in a process over time, variation over time, or declines or improvements in a process over time. Trend analysis is performed using run charts and involves mathematical techniques to forecast future outcomes based on historical results.

Trend analysis is often used to monitor:

• Technical performance: How many errors or defects have been identified, and how many remain uncorrected?
• Cost and schedule performance: How many activities per period were completed with significant variances?

Scatter diagram
The possible relationships between two variables are identified using scatter diagrams. In order to understand data as a whole, it is very important to understand the relationships among data elements.

Statistical sampling
This involves choosing part of a population of interest for inspection. Sample frequency and sizes should be determined during quality planning.

Inspection
Inspection is the backbone of quality control. Inspection is used to identify problems. Every project or process can be inspected using subjective or objective criteria for weakness in conformance to standards. Inspection is the process of examining, measuring, and testing results to check if they confirm to actual requirements. Inspections may be conducted on the results of a single activity or on the final product of the project. Inspections may be conducted at any level. Reviews, product reviews, audits and walk-through are the other names given to inspection.