October 20, 2012

MB0053 [International Business Management] Set2 Q4

Q.4 a) Explain the role played by EXIM bank. 

Answer:


Export-Import Bank of India is the premier export finance institution of the country, set up in 1982 under the Export-Import Bank of India Act 1981.


Exim Bank is managed by a Board of Directors, which has representatives from the Government, Reserve Bank of India, Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India, a financial institution, public sector banks, and the business community.

The Bank's functions are segmented into several operating groups including:

Corporate Banking Group which handles a variety of financing programmes for Export Oriented Units (EOUs), Importers, and overseas investment by Indian companies. 
Project Finance / Trade Finance Group handles the entire range of export credit services such as supplier's credit, pre-shipment Agri Business Group, to spearhead the initiative to promote and support Agri-exports. The Group handles projects and export transactions in the agricultural sector for financing. 
Small and Medium Enterprise: The group handles credit proposals from SMEs under various lending programmes of the Bank. 
Export Services Group offers variety of advisory and value-added information services aimed at investment promotion. 
Export Marketing Services Bank offers assistance to Indian companies, to enable them establish their products in overseas markets. 
Besides these, the Support Services groups, which include: Research & Planning, Corporate Finance, Loan Recovery, Internal Audit, Management Information Services, Information Technology, Legal, Human Resources Management and Corporate Affairs. 

b) What are B2B and C2B business models? 
Business-to-business (B2B) describes commerce transactions between businesses, such as between a manufacturer and a wholesaler, or between a wholesaler and a retailer. Contrasting terms are business-to-consumer (B2C) and business-to-government (B2G).

The volume of B2B (Business-to-Business) transactions is much higher than the volume of B2C transactions. The primary reason for this is that in a typical supply chain there will be many B2B transactions involving sub components or raw materials, and only one B2C transaction, specifically sale of the finished product to the end customer. For example, an automobile manufacturer makes several B2B transactions such as buying tires, glass for windscreens, and rubber hoses for its vehicles. The final transaction, a finished vehicle sold to the consumer, is a single (B2C) transaction.


B2B is also used in the context of communication and collaboration. Many businesses are now using social media to connect with their consumers (B2C); however, they are now using similar tools within the business so employees can connect with one another. When communication is taking place amongst employees, this can be referred to as "B2B" communication.


The term "business-to-business" was originally coined to describe the electronic communications between businesses or enterprises in order to distinguish it from the communications between businesses and consumers (B2C). It eventually came to be used in marketing as well, initially describing only industrial or capital goods marketing. Today it is widely used to describe all products and services used by enterprises. Many professional institutions and the trade publications focus much more on B2C than B2B, although most sales and marketing personnel are in the B2B sector.

Although the exploitation of Internet technologies at the business-to-business level is in its infancy, a number of models have begun to emerge that manage transactions between buyers and suppliers:

1. Established Buyer-Supplier Relationship This is a pre-determined one-to-one relationship between a buyer and supplier that is supported by electronic commerce technologies. Due to the aforementioned limitations associated with EDI, companies have now turned their attention towards the Internet to support these types of buyer-supplier relationships. Companies are now pursuing a more intensive and interactive relationship with their suppliers, impacting upon the buyer-supplier relationship in a number of areas, including the integration of manufacturing systems and supplier involvement in new product development. Exchanging information via extranets costs less and is more effective than through older traditional methods such as faxes and voicemail. For example, NEC has developed an advanced information system to carry out a large part of its procurement activities, ranging from procurement notices to settlement on the Internet.

2. Supplier-Oriented Marketplace In this model, both organizations and consumers use the supplier-provided marketplace. This is the most common type of B2B model. In this model, both business buyers and individual consumers use the same supplier-provided marketplace. An example of this model is RS Components (rswww.com). RS Components is a leading distributor of electronic, electrical, and mechanical components, instruments, and tools in Europe. The marketplace provides fast search and retrieval of 100,000 products, combined with personalized customer promotions based on the buying profiles of its major customers. A supplier-oriented marketplace may also provide an auctioning facility to offload surplus inventory or offer discounts to customers.

3. Buyer-Oriented Marketplace Under this model, a buyer opens an electronic market on its own server and invites potential suppliers to bid on the announced Requests for Quotation (RFQs). One company that has successfully exploited this model is GE Lighting. The purchasing department receives electronic requisitions from internal customers that are then sent to potential suppliers over the Internet. Within two hours of the purchasing department starting the process, suppliers are notified of incoming RFQs and are given seven days to prepare bids and send them back over the extranet to GE. With the transaction handled electronically, the procurement function has been able to concentrate on more strategic activities rather than clerical and administration tasks.


4. Business-to-Business Intermediary This model is sometimes referred to as a ‘hub’ or ‘exchange’. It is established by an electronic intermediary that runs a marketplace where suppliers and buyers have a central point to come together. These B2B hubs tend to focus mainly on non-core items that may range from stationery and computers to catering services and travel. There are two types of hubs:

Vertical - focus on an industry and provide content that is specific to the industry’s value system of buyers and suppliers. Examples include e-Steel that acts as an intermediary between steel- makers and customers, and VerticalNet that provides intermediaries for many industries including electronics, process, telecommunications, and utilities. 
Horizontal - provide the same function for a variety of industries. An example is iMark.com, which acts as an intermediary between buyers and suppliers of used capital equipment in different industries. 

An intermediary may be closed - where members and trading partners are vetted for legal and financial probity - or open to all-comers, with the marketplace itself acting as a trusted intermediary. It is important to note that intermediaries may be biased towards either buyers or suppliers. Supply-side intermediaries may be run by consortia of manufacturers such as Chemdex that acts as an intermediary for suppliers to the life sciences industry. Similarly, buy-side intermediaries may be run by a consortia of customers such as Covisint for car makers or by independent organizations such as Achilles for utilities. These intermediaries may attempt to aggregate demand for buyers in order to obtain reduced prices and more favorable terms from suppliers.

In relation to payment, some intermediaries may charge a flat fee per transaction to both the buyer and suppliers. Alternatively, a percentage may be charged in the case of value-added services such as auctions. In the case of large, repetitive transactions, to achieve maximum benefit the intermediary should be linked seamlessly to the buyer’s purchasing and the suppliers’ systems so that the entire purchasing process can be executed electronically. In the context of competitive advantage and the influence of the Internet, customer/supplier lifecycle is a useful framework for understanding an organization’s business processes, as well as those of their customers, suppliers, and competitors. This framework provides a way of distinguishing between buying and selling activities to better understand the interrelationships between customers and suppliers’ business processes, and what they term ‘TouchPoints’ in the company. 

A successful electronic business strategy will alter the nature of the product or service being offered, its value in the marketplace, or the buyer-supplier relationship.


Consumer-to-business (C2B) is an electronic commerce business model in which consumers (individuals) offer products and services to companies and the companies pay them. This business model is a complete reversal of traditional business model where companies offer goods and services to consumers (business-to-consumer = B2C). We can see this example in blogs or internet forums where the author offers a link back to an online business facilitating the purchase of some product (like a book on Amazon.com), and the author might receive affiliate revenue from a successful sale.


This kind of economic relationship is qualified as an inverted business type. The advent of the C2B scheme is due to major changes:

Connecting a large group of people to a bidirectional network has made this sort of commercial relationship possible. The large traditional media outlets are one direction relationship whereas the internet is bidirectional one. 
Decreased cost of technology : Individuals now have access to technologies that were once only available to large companies ( digital printing and acquisition technology, high performance computer, powerful software).

C2B business models like most of C2C models like Ebay are based on 3 players: a consumer acting as seller, a business acting as buyer and an intermediary dealing with the connection between sellers and buyers. 


Consumer 

A consumer in the C2B business model can be any individual who has something to offer either a service or a good. The individual is paid for the work provided to the companies. Depending on the model, the "consumer" can be: 
A webmaster/ blogger offering advertising service (through Google Adsense program for example or amazon.com affiliation program) 
A photographer or a designer offering stock images to companies by selling his artwork through Fotolia or istockphoto for example 
Any individual answering a poll through a survey site 
Any individual with connections offering job hiring service by referring someone through referral hiring sites like jobster.com or h3.com

Business 

Business in the C2B business model represents any companies buying goods or services to individual trough intermediaries. Here are some examples of potential companies which can be such clients: 
Any company which wants to fill a job (through referral hiring sites) 
Any company needing to advertise online (through Google Adwords program for example) 
Any advertising agency which needs to buy a stock photo (through microstock sites)

Intermediary 

The Intermediary is the crucial element since it creates the connection between business which needs a service or a good and a mass of individuals. Intermediary is usually a portal both for buyers (businesses) and seller (individuals). 

The intermediary plays two roles: 

It promotes goods and services offered by individuals by proposing a distribution channel. It offers what individuals can't do themselves : large promotion, logistic and financial support, technical expertise.
It offers buyers a contact to a mass of individuals and takes care of money transactions and legal aspects.

We can notice that some intermediaries prefer creating two different accesses one for buyers and one for sellers (Google Adwords for advertiser - Google Adsense for web publisher) whereas other companies like Fotolia have only one access because buyers and sellers can be the same. 


We can differentiate two kinds of intermediaries: 

Extern intermediary : they act as a extern agent within the relation between companies and individual (ex : referral hiring site).
Intern intermediary: they play the role both of business and intermediary. For example, it is the case of amazon.com through its affiliation program. Amazon pays individual to promote its own products.

Few types of intermediaries 


Intermediary
Examples
What do they sell?
Advertising Site
Advertising services through search engines and websites
Microstock Site
Stock Photos, Vectors, Flash animations
Job Hiring Service


C2B vs B2C : Graphical Representation

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