October 21, 2012

MU0011 [Management and Organizational Development] Set2 Q2

Q.2) Explain the Johari Window model.


The Johari Window model was proposed by American psychologists Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham in 1955 while researching group dynamics, as a very simple yet useful tool for which could be used for improving self-awareness, and mutual understanding between individuals within a group. Assessment of one groups relationship with the other is something which can also be done using this model. 

The Johari Window is accepted as a concept which can be of great help in gauging an employee or employer relationships within the Psychological Contract.

The four Johari Window perspectives are known as 'quadrants'. These four quadrants represent feelings, motivation, etc. known about the person, in terms of whether the information is known or unknown by the person.

First quadrant open area/open self/free area/free self implies what is known by the person about himself or herself and is also known by others. 

Second Quadrant blind area, blind self, or blind spot implies what is unknown by the person about him/herself but which others know.

Third Quadrant hidden area, hidden self, avoided area, avoided self or facade' implies what the person knows about him/herself that others do not know. 

Fourth Quadrant unknown area or unknown self implies what is unknown by the person about him/herself and is also unknown by others.

Fig. Johari Window

The Johari Model Quadrants in details

Quadrant 1 - 'open self/area' or 'free area' or 'public area', or 'arena'
Region 1 is also referred to as the 'area of free activity'. This region gives an information about the person - behavior, attitude, feelings, emotion, knowledge, experience, skills, views, etc - known by the person ('the self') and known by the group ('others'). 

The aim in any group should always be to develop the 'open area' for every person, because when we work in this area with others we try to be as effective and productive as possible and the group is at its most productive too. The open free area can be considered as the space where good communications and cooperation occurs, free from distractions, mistrust, confusion, conflict and misunderstanding. 

The "open" quadrant represents things that both I know about myself, and that you know about me. For example, I know my name, and so do you, and if you have explored some of my website, you know some of my interests. The knowledge that the window represents, can include not only factual information, but my feelings, motives, behaviors, wants, needs and desires... indeed, any information describing who I am. When I first meet a new person, the size of the opening of this first quadrant is not very large, since there has been little time to exchange information. As the process of getting to know one another continues, the window shades move down or to the right, placing more information into the open window, as described below.

Quadrant 2 - 'blind self' or 'blind area' or 'blind spot'
Region 2 of the model represents the blind spot or what is known about a person by others in the group, but is unknown by the person him/herself. By seeking feedback from others, the aim should be to reduce this area and thereby to increase the open area (refer to the model diagram below). This blind area is a non-effective or non-productive space for individuals or groups. This area could also be referred to as ones ignorance about oneself. We are well aware of how difficult it is to work well if kept in the dark.

The "blind" quadrant represents things that you know about me, but that I am unaware of. So, for example, we could be eating at a restaurant, and I may have unknowingly gotten some food on my face. This information is in my blind quadrant because you can see it, but I cannot. If you now tell me that I have something on my face, then the window shade moves to the right, enlarging the open quadrant's area. Now, I may also have blindspots with respect to many other much more complex things. For example, perhaps in our ongoing conversation, you may notice that eye contact seems to be lacking. You may not say anything, since you may not want to embarrass me, or you may draw your own inferences that perhaps I am being insincere. Then the problem is, how can I get this information out in the open, since it may be affecting the level of trust that is developing between us? How can I learn more about myself? Unfortunately, there is no readily available answer. I may notice a slight hesitation on your part, and perhaps this may lead to a question. But who knows if I will pick this up, or if your answer will be on the mark.

Quadrant 3 'hidden self' or 'hidden area' or 'avoided self/area' or 'facade'
Region 3, which is referred to as hidden area which implies what is known to ourselves but kept hidden from others. This hidden or avoided self represents information, feelings, etc, anything that a person knows about him/self, but which is not revealed or is kept hidden from others. The hidden area could also include sensitivities, fears, hidden agendas, manipulative intentions, and secrets - anything that a person knows but does not reveal, for whatever reason. It's natural for very personal and private information and feelings to remain hidden, indeed, certain information, feelings and experiences have no bearing on work, and so can and should remain hidden.

The "hidden" quadrant represents things that I know about myself, that you do not know. So for example, I have not told you, nor mentioned anywhere on my website, what one of my favorite ice cream flavors is. This information is in my "hidden" quadrant. As soon as I tell you that I love "Ben and Jerry's Cherry Garcia" flavored ice cream, I am effectively pulling the window shade down, moving the information in my hidden quadrant and enlarging the open quadrant's area. Again, there are vast amounts of information, virtually my whole life's story, that has yet to be revealed to you. As we get to know and trust each other, I will then feel more comfortable disclosing more intimate details about myself. This process is called: "Self-disclosure."

Quadrant 4 'unknown self' or 'area of unknown activity' or 'unknown area'
Region 4 which is referred to as the unknown area contains information, feelings, latent abilities, aptitudes, experiences etc, that are both unknown to the person him/herself as well as unknown to others in the group also. These unknown issues may take the form of feelings, behaviors, attitudes, capabilities, aptitudes, and more which can be quite close to the surface, and which can be positive and useful. 

The "unknown" quadrant represents things that neither I know about myself, nor you know about me. For example, I may disclose a dream that I had, and as we both attempt to understand its significance, a new awareness may emerge, known to neither of us before the conversation took place. Being placed in new situations often reveal new information not previously known to self or others. For example, I learned of the Johari window at a workshop conducted by a Japanese American psychiatrist in the early 1980's. During this workshop, he created a safe atmosphere of care and trust between the various participants. Usually, I am terrified of speaking in public, but I was surprised to learn that in such an atmosphere, the task need not be so daunting. Prior to this event, I had viewed myself and others had also viewed me as being extremely shy. (The above now reminds me of a funny joke, which I cannot refrain from telling you. It is said that the number one fear that people have is speaking in public. Their number two fear is dying. And the number three fear that people have, is dying while speaking in public.) Thus, a novel situation can trigger new awareness and personal growth. The process of moving previously unknown information into the open quadrant, thus enlarging its area, has been likened to Maslow's concept of self-actualization. The process can also be viewed as a game, where the open quadrant is synonymous with the win-win situation.

Examples of unknown factors are as follows:
a person not realizing a natural ability or aptitude that he possesses
a person having any unknown illness
A person not knowing that he has a fear or aversion. 
The ability of a person that under-estimated or un-tried through lack of opportunity, encouragement, confidence or training
A persons repressed or subconscious feelings 
A persons conditioned behavior or attitudes from childhood 

Whether unknown 'discovered' knowledge moves into the hidden, blind or open area depends on who discovers it and what they do with the knowledge, notably whether it is then given as feedback, or disclosed. 

Much, much more has been written on the Johari window model of human interaction. The process of enlarging the open quadrant is called self-disclosure, a give and take process between me and the people I interact with. Typically, as I share something about myself (moving information from my hidden quadrant into the open) and if the other party is interested in getting to know me, they will reciprocate, by similarly disclosing information in their hidden quadrant. Thus, an interaction between two parties can be modeled dynamically as two active Johari windows. For example, you may respond to my disclosure that I like "Cherry Garcia" by letting me know what your favorite ice cream is, or where a new ice cream shop is being built, kinds of information in your hidden quadrant. Incidentally, it is fattening, so be careful on how much you eat!

We believe disclosure to be healthy, at least that's the impression one gets after reading Freud. However, Anita Kelly recently wrote that self-disclosure of personal secrets has its dangers. We are often better off not telling secrets regarding our sexual behavior, mental health problems or large-scale failures. "If you give people information about yourself, you give them power over you," she says. Monica Lewinsky's disclosure to Linda Tripp and the ensuing scandal that enveloped President Clinton is a case in point. Be forewarned that most secrets get passed along to at least two more parties. People also misjudge how others respond to secrets. Sometimes you get negative feedback.

For example, a women who reveals that she was raped may be seen in the future as a victim, or by men as damaged goods. Now, if you must tell your secret to someone, chose that person very carefully. Chose someone whose response will give you some insight into your problem. Unfortunately, such a person is often hard to find. So if you cannot find anyone appropriate, consider this: that keeping secrets is healthy and tasteful, because it is a way of managing your identity, and indicates you are secure and have self-control. But it takes energy, because you have to be on constant guard not to accidentally reveal something that is potentially damaging.

As ones level of confidence and self esteem develops, one may actively invite others to comment on one's blind spots. A teacher may seek feedback from students on the quality of a particular lecture, with the desire of improving the presentation. Active listening skills are helpful in this endeavor. On the other hand, we all have defenses, protecting the parts of ourselves that we feel vulnerable. Remember, the blind quadrant contains behavior, feelings and motivations not accessible to the person, but which others can see. Feelings of inadequacy, incompetence, impotence, unworthiness, rejection, guilt, dependency, ambivalence for loved ones, needs to control and manipulate, are all difficult to face, and yet can be seen by others. To forcibly reveal what another wishes not to see, is "psychological rape," and can be traumatic. Fortunately, nature has provided us with a variety of defense mechanisms to cope with such events, such as denial, ignoring, rationalizing, etc.

The Johari window, essentially being a model for communication, can also reveal difficulties in this area. In Johari terms, two people attempt to communicate via the open quadrants. On the simplest level, difficulties may arise due to a lack of clarity in the interaction, such as poor grammar or choice of words, unorganized thoughts, faulty logic etc. This induces the receiver to criticize you, the sender, by revealing something that was in your blind quadrant. Then, if the feedback works, you correct it immediately, or perhaps on a more long term approach take a course in reading and writing. On a deeper level, you may be in a group meeting, and while you secretly sympathize with the minority viewpoint, you voted with the majority. However, blind to you, you actually may be communicating this information via body language, in conflict with your verbal message. On an even deeper level, you in an interaction with others, may always put on a smiling, happy face, hiding all negative feelings. By withholding negative feelings, you may be signaling to your friends to withhold also, and keep their distance. Thus, your communication style may seem bland or distant.

And let's not forget the parable of the blind men and the elephant. Our society is constructed so that many of us get very specialized, knowing only a small academic field very well, while being virtually ignorant of all others. This specialization is blinding many of us to what is happening in the world today. According to R. Buckminister Fuller, this system of education was done on purpose, to channel the most intelligent people into specialties, enabling them to be more easily controlled. Noam Chomsky has made similar comments with regards to the manufacturing enterprise, and how Adam Smith's writings have been purposely misrepresented.   

No comments:

Post a Comment


1st Sem (common) Subjects (150) 1st Sem BBA (10) 2nd Sem (common) Subjects (70) 2nd Sem BBA (10) 3rd Sem Banking Management (30) 3rd Sem BBA (8) 3rd Sem core/common subjects (37) 3rd Sem Environmental Management (2) 3rd Sem Event Management (8) 3rd Sem Finance Management (113) 3rd Sem HEALTH SERVICE MANAGEMENT (HSM/HCS) (65) 3rd Sem Human Resource Management (98) 3rd Sem Information Systems Management (8) 3rd Sem International Business (34) 3rd Sem Marketing Management (129) 3rd Sem Operations Management (8) 3rd Sem Project Management (103) 3rd Sem Retail Operations Management (8) 3rd Sem Supply Chain Management (SCM) (16) 3rd Sem Total Quality Management (TQM) (16) 4th Sem Banking Management (38) 4th Sem core/common subjects (65) 4th Sem Event Management (8) 4th Sem Finance Management (8) 4th Sem HEALTH SERVICE MANAGEMENT (HSM/HCS) (21) 4th Sem Human Resource Management (104) 4th Sem Information Systems Management (8) 4th Sem International Business (12) 4th Sem Marketing Management (8) 4th Sem Operations Management (37) 4th Sem Project Management (56) 4th Sem Retail Operations Management (8) 4th Sem Supply Chain Management (SCM) (8) 4th Sem Total Quality Management (TQM) (8) BBA101 - Communication Skills (2) BBA101 Set1 (1) BBA101 Set2 (1) BBA102 - Organization Behaviour (2) BBA102 Set1 (1) BBA102 Set2 (1) BBA103 - Business Environment (2) BBA103 Set1 (1) BBA103 Set2 (1) BBA104 - Quantitative Techniques in Business (2) BBA104 Set1 (1) BBA104 Set2 (1) BBA105 - Computer Fundamentals (2) BBA105 Set1 (1) BBA105 Set2 (1) BBA201 - Research Methods (2) BBA201 Set1 (1) BBA201 Set2 (1) BBA202 - Business Strategy (2) BBA202 Set1 (1) BBA202 Set2 (1) BBA203 - Financial Accounting (2) BBA203 Set1 (1) BBA203 Set2 (1) BBA204 - Marketing Management (2) BBA204 Set1 (1) BBA204 Set2 (1) BBA205 - Management Information Systems (2) BBA205 Set1 (1) BBA205 Set2 (1) BBA301 - Legal and Regulatory Framework (2) BBA301 Set1 (1) BBA301 Set2 (1) BBA302 - Human Resource Management (2) BBA302 Set1 (1) BBA302 Set2 (1) BBA303 - Quality Management (2) BBA303 Set1 (1) BBA303 Set2 (1) BBA304 - Advertising and sales (2) BBA304 Set1 (1) BBA304 Set2 (1) Differences between Managers and Leaders (1) EM0001 - Fundamentals of Environment (2) EM0001 Set1 (1) EM0001 Set2 (1) ET0001 - Human resource management for events (2) ET0001 Set1 (1) ET0001 Set2 (1) ET0002 - Corporate Event Project Management (2) ET0002 Set1 (1) ET0002 Set2 (1) ET0003 - Event marketing and management (2) ET0003 Set1 (1) ET0003 Set2 (1) ET0004 - Event Finance Management (2) ET0004 Set1 (1) ET0004 Set2 (1) ET0006 - Event Risk Management (2) ET0006 Set1 (1) ET0006 Set2 (1) ET0007 - Entrepreneurship (2) ET0007 Set1 (1) ET0007 Set2 (1) ET0008 - Special Events (2) ET0008 Set1 (1) ET0008 Set2 (1) ET0009 - Event Management for Tourism (2) ET0009 Set1 (1) ET0009 Set2 (1) IB0010 - International Financial Management (9) IB0010 Set1 (7) IB0010 Set2 (2) IB0011 - International Marketing (9) IB0011 Set1 (2) IB0011 Set2 (7) IB0012 - Management of Multinational Corporations (8) IB0012 Set1 (7) IB0012 Set2 (1) IB0013 - Export-Import Management (8) IB0013 Set1 (7) IB0013 Set2 (1) IB0015 - Foreign Trade of India (6) IB0015 Set1 (3) IB0015 Set2 (3) IB0016 - International Logistics and Distribution Management (2) IB0016 Set1 (1) IB0016 Set2 (1) IB0017 - International Business Environment and International Law (2) IB0017 Set1 (1) IB0017 Set2 (1) IB0018 - Export Import Finance (2) IB0018 Set1 (1) IB0018 Set2 (1) MA0036 - Financial Systems and Commercial Banking (14) MA0036 Set1 (7) MA0036 Set2 (7) MA0037 - Banking Related Laws and Practices (12) MA0037 Set1 (6) MA0037 Set2 (6) MA0038 - Banking Operations (2) MA0038 Set1 (1) MA0038 Set2 (1) MA0039 - Retail Banking (2) MA0039 Set1 (1) MA0039 Set2 (1) MA0040 (1) MA0041 - Merchant Banking and Financial Services (5) MA0041 Set1 (3) MA0041 Set2 (2) MA0042 - Treasury Management (14) MA0042 Set1 (7) MA0042 Set2 (7) MA0043 - Corporate Banking (9) MA0043 Set1 (5) MA0043 Set2 (4) MA0044 - Institutional Banking (10) MA0044 Set1 (8) MA0044 Set2 (2) MB0038 - Management Process and Organization Behavior (24) MB0038 Set1 (16) MB0038 Set2 (9) MB0039 - Business Communication (24) MB0039 Set1 (15) MB0039 Set2 (9) MB0040 - STATISTICS FOR MANAGEMENT (24) MB0040 Set1 (15) MB0040 Set2 (9) MB0041 - Financial Management and Accounting (24) MB0041 Set1 (15) MB0041 Set2 (9) MB0042 - Managerial Economics (30) MB0042 Set1 (15) MB0042 Set2 (15) MB0043 - Human Resource Management (24) MB0043 Set1 (15) MB0043 Set2 (9) MB0044 - PRODUCTION and OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT (16) MB0044 Set1 (8) MB0044 Set2 (8) MB0045 - Financial Management (9) MB0045 Set1 (7) MB0045 Set2 (2) MB0046 - Marketing Management (10) MB0046 Set1 (8) MB0046 Set2 (2) MB0047 - MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS (15) MB0047 Set1 (8) MB0047 Set2 (7) MB0048 - OPERATIONS RESEARCH (10) MB0048 Set1 (8) MB0048 Set2 (2) MB0049 - Project Management (10) MB0049 Set1 (8) MB0049 Set2 (2) MB0050 - Research Methodology (20) MB0050 Set1 (10) MB0050 Set2 (10) MB0051 - Legal Aspects of Business (17) MB0051 Set1 (13) MB0051 Set2 (4) MB0052 - Strategic Management and Business Policy (30) MB0052 Set1 (15) MB0052 Set2 (15) MB0053 - International Business Management (35) MB0053 Set1 (19) MB0053 Set2 (16) MF0010 - Security Analysis and Portfolio Management (39) MF0010 Set1 (21) MF0010 Set2 (18) MF0011 - Mergers and Acquisitions (24) MF0011 Set1 (14) MF0011 Set2 (10) MF0012 - Taxation Management (25) MF0012 Set1 (16) MF0012 Set2 (9) MF0013 - Internal Audit and Control (25) MF0013 Set1 (16) MF0013 Set2 (9) MF0014 (1) MF0015 - International Financial Management (2) MF0015 Set1 (1) MF0015 Set2 (1) MF0016 - Treasury Management (2) MF0016 Set1 (1) MF0016 Set2 (1) MF0017 - Merchant Banking and Financial Services (2) MF0017 Set1 (1) MF0017 Set2 (1) MF0018 - Insurance and Risk Management (2) MF0018 Set1 (1) MF0018 Set2 (1) MH0051 - Health Administration (15) MH0051 Set1 (5) MH0051 Set2 (10) MH0052 - Hospital Organisation Operations and Planning (26) MH0052 Set1 (12) MH0052 Set2 (14) MH0053 - Hospital and Healthcare Information Management (11) MH0053 Set1 (3) MH0053 Set2 (8) MH0054 - Finance Economics and Planning in HCS (13) MH0054 Set1 (10) MH0054 Set2 (3) MH0055 (1) MH0056 - Public Relations and Marketing for Healthcare Organisation (6) MH0056 Set1 (3) MH0056 Set2 (3) MH0057 - Management of Healthcare Human Resources (5) MH0057 Set1 (2) MH0057 Set2 (3) MH0058 - Legal Aspects in Healthcare Administration (5) MH0058 Set1 (3) MH0058 Set2 (2) MH0059 - Quality Management in HCS (5) MH0059 Set1 (3) MH0059 Set2 (2) MI0014 (1) MI0033 - Software Engineering (2) MI0033 Set1 (1) MI0033 Set2 (1) MI0034 - Database Management System (2) MI0034 Set1 (1) MI0034 Set2 (1) MI0035 - Computer Network (2) MI0035 Set1 (1) MI0035 Set2 (1) MI0036 - BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE TOOLS (2) MI0036 Set1 (1) MI0036 Set2 (1) MI0038 - Enterprise Resource Planning (2) MI0038 Set1 (1) MI0038 Set2 (1) MI0039 - eCommerce (2) MI0039 Set1 (1) MI0039 Set2 (1) MI0040 - Technology Management (2) MI0040 Set1 (1) MI0040 Set2 (1) MI0041 - Java and Web Design (2) MI0041 Set1 (1) MI0041 Set2 (1) MK0010 - Sales Distribution and Supply Chain Management (33) MK0010 Set1 (17) MK0010 Set2 (16) MK0011 - Consumer Behaviour (31) MK0011 Set1 (16) MK0011 Set2 (15) MK0012 - Retail Marketing (42) MK0012 Set1 (20) MK0012 Set2 (22) MK0013 - Market Research (23) MK0013 Set1 (12) MK0013 Set2 (11) MK0014 (1) MK0015 - Service Marketing And Customer Relationship Management (2) MK0015 Set1 (1) MK0015 Set2 (1) MK0016 - Advertising Management and Sales Promotion (2) MK0016 Set1 (1) MK0016 Set2 (1) MK0017 - eMarketing (2) MK0017 Set1 (1) MK0017 Set2 (1) MK0018 - International Marketing (2) MK0018 Set1 (1) MK0018 Set2 (1) ML0010 - Warehousing and Supply Chain Management (2) ML0010 Set1 (1) ML0010 Set2 (1) ML0011 - Buying and Merchandising (2) ML0011 Set1 (1) ML0011 Set2 (1) ML0012 - Store Operations (2) ML0012 Set1 (1) ML0012 Set2 (1) ML0013 - Retail IT Management (2) ML0013 Set1 (1) ML0013 Set2 (1) ML0014 (1) ML0015 - Services Marketing and Customer Relationship Management (2) ML0015 Set1 (1) ML0015 Set2 (1) ML0016 - Advertising Management and Sales Promotion (2) ML0016 Set1 (1) ML0016 Set2 (1) ML0017 - Mall Management (2) ML0017 Set1 (1) ML0017 Set2 (1) ML0018 - Project Management in Retail (2) ML0018 Set1 (1) ML0018 Set2 (1) MU0010 - Manpower Planning and Resourcing (31) MU0010 Set1 (16) MU0010 Set2 (15) MU0011 - Management and Organizational Development (20) MU0011 Set1 (10) MU0011 Set2 (10) MU0012 - Employee Relations Management (22) MU0012 Set1 (11) MU0012 Set2 (11) MU0013 - Human Resource Audit (25) MU0013 Set1 (15) MU0013 Set2 (10) MU0014 (1) MU0015 - Compensation Benefits (24) MU0015 Set1 (14) MU0015 Set2 (10) MU0016 - Performance Management and Appraisal (27) MU0016 Set1 (12) MU0016 Set2 (15) MU0017 - Talent Management and Employee Retention (24) MU0017 Set1 (12) MU0017 Set2 (12) MU0018 - Change Management (29) MU0018 Set1 (9) MU0018 Set2 (20) OM0010 - Operations Management (2) OM0010 Set1 (1) OM0010 Set2 (1) OM0011 - Enterprise Resource Planning (2) OM0011 Set1 (1) OM0011 Set2 (1) OM0012 - Supply Chain Management (2) OM0012 Set1 (1) OM0012 Set2 (1) OM0013 - Advanced Production and Operations Management (2) OM0013 Set1 (1) OM0013 Set2 (1) OM0014 (1) OM0015 - Maintenance Management (6) OM0015 Set1 (3) OM0015 Set2 (3) OM0016 - Quality Management (11) OM0016 Set1 (8) OM0016 Set2 (3) OM0017 - Advanced Production and Planning Control (11) OM0017 Set1 (3) OM0017 Set2 (8) OM0018 - Technology Management (9) OM0018 Set1 (7) OM0018 Set2 (2) PM0010 - Introduction to Project Management (26) PM0010 Set1 (14) PM0010 Set2 (12) PM0011 - Project Planning and Scheduling (25) PM0011 Set1 (14) PM0011 Set2 (11) PM0012 - Project Financing and Budgeting (26) PM0012 Set1 (14) PM0012 Set2 (12) PM0013 - Managing Human Resources in Projects (26) PM0013 Set1 (13) PM0013 Set2 (14) PM0014 (1) PM0015 - Quantitative Methods in Project Management (14) PM0015 Set1 (8) PM0015 Set2 (6) PM0016 - Project Risk Management (14) PM0016 Set1 (7) PM0016 Set2 (7) PM0017 - Project Quality Management (14) PM0017 Set1 (7) PM0017 Set2 (7) PM0018 - Contracts Management in Projects (14) PM0018 Set1 (7) PM0018 Set2 (7) Project (1) QM0010 - Foundations of Quality Management (4) QM0010 Set1 (2) QM0010 Set2 (2) QM0011 - Principles and Philosophies of Quality Management (4) QM0011 Set1 (2) QM0011 Set2 (2) QM0012 - Statistical Process Control and Process Capability (4) QM0012 Set1 (2) QM0012 Set2 (2) QM0013 - Quality Management Tools (4) QM0013 Set1 (2) QM0013 Set2 (2) QM0014 (1) QM0015 - ISO/QS 9000 Elements (2) QM0015 Set1 (1) QM0015 Set2 (1) QM0016 - Managing Quality in the Organization (2) QM0016 Set1 (1) QM0016 Set2 (1) QM0017 - Quality Management System (2) QM0017 Set1 (1) QM0017 Set2 (1) QM0018 - Quality Development Methods (2) QM0018 Set1 (1) QM0018 Set2 (1) SC0001 - Supply Chain Management (4) SC0001 Set1 (2) SC0001 Set2 (2) SC0002 - Outsourcing (4) SC0002 Set1 (2) SC0002 Set2 (2) SC0003 - Food Supply Chain Management (4) SC0003 Set1 (2) SC0003 Set2 (2) SC0004 - Inventory Management (4) SC0004 Set1 (2) SC0004 Set2 (2) SC0006 - Global Logistics and Supply Chain Management (2) SC0006 Set1 (1) SC0006 Set2 (1) SC0007 - Category Management in Purchasing (2) SC0007 Set1 (1) SC0007 Set2 (1) SC0008 - Purchasing and Contracting for Projects (2) SC0008 Set1 (1) SC0008 Set2 (1) SC0009 - Supply Chain Cost Management (2) SC0009 Set1 (1) SC0009 Set2 (1) SMU BBA Subjects (1) SMU MBA/PGDBA Subjects (1)

Visitor Count (since Jan 2019)