October 21, 2012

MU0011 [Management and Organizational Development] Set1 Q1

Q1. State the characteristics of organizational culture.

Ans:

A single definition of organizational culture has proven to be very elusive. No one definition of organizational culture has emerged in the literature. One of the issues involving culture is that it is defined both in terms of its causes and effect. For example, these are the two ways in which cultures often defined. 

1. Outcomes- Defining culture as a manifest pattern of behavior- Many people use the term culture to describe patterns of cross individual behavioral consistency For example, when people say that culture is “The way we do things around here,” they are defining consistent way is in which people perform tasks, solve problems, resolve conflicts, treat customers, and treat employees

2. Process- Defining culture as a set of mechanisms creating cross individual behavioral consistency- In this case culture is defined as the informal values, norms, and beliefs that control how individuals and groups in an organization interact with each other and with people outside the organization. 

Both of these approaches are relevant to understanding culture. It is important to know on what types of behavior culture has greatest impact (outcomes) and how culture works to control the behavior of organizational members. We will address these two questions later in the module. 

Functions of organizational culture 
1. Behavioral control 
2. Encourages stability 
3. Provides source of identity 

Draw backs of culture
1. Barrier to change and improvement 
2. Barrier to diversity 
3. Barrier to cross departmental and cross organizational cooperation 
4. Barrier to mergers and acquisitions 

What Types of Behavior Does Culture Control? Using the outcome approach, cultures are described in terms of the following variables: 
• Innovation versus Stability- The degree to which organizational members are encouraged to be innovative, creative and to take risks. 
• Strategic versus Operational Focus- The degree to which the members of the management team focus on the long term big picture versus attention to detail. 
• Outcome versus Process Orientation- The degree to which management focuses on outcomes, goals and results rather than on techniques, processes, or methods used to achieve these results. 
• Task Versus Social Focus- The relative emphasis on effect of decisions on organizational members and relationships over task accomplishment at all costs 
• Team versus Individual orientation- The degree to which work activities are organized around teams rather than individuals 
• Customer Focus versus Cost Control- The degree to which managers and employees are concerned about customer satisfaction and Service rather than minimizing costs 
• Internal verses External Orientation- The degree to which the organization focuses on and is adaptive to changes in its environment 

Cultural Control Mechanisms
How does organizational culture control the behavior of organizational members? If consistent behavioral patterns are the outcomes or products of a culture, what is it that causes many people to act in a similar manner? There are four basic ways in which a culture, or more accurately members of a reference group representing a culture, creates high levels of cross individual behavioral consistency. There are: 

• Social Norms
Social norms are the most basic and most obvious of cultural control mechanisms. In its basic form, a social norm is simply a behavioral expectation that people will act in a certain way in certain situations. Norms (as opposed to rules) are enforced by other members of a reference group by the use of social sanctions. Norms have been categorized by level. 

A. Peripheral norms are general expectations that make interactions easier and more pleasant. Because adherence of these norms is not essential to the functioning of the group, violation of these norms general results in mild social sanctions. 
B. Relevant norms encompass behaviors that are important to group functioning. Violation of these norms often results in non-inclusion in important group functions and activities 
C. Pivotal norms represent behaviors that are essential to effective group functioning. Individuals violating these norms are often subject to expulsion from the group. 

Shared Values 
• As a cultural control mechanism the keyword in shared values is shared. The issue is not whether or not a particular individual's behavior can best be explained and/or predicted by his or her values, but rather how widely is that value shared among organizational members, and more importantly, how responsible was the organization/culture in developing that value within the individual. What is a value? Any phenomenon that is some degree of worth to the members of giving groups: The conception of the desirable that establishes a general direction of action rather than a specific objective. Values are the conscious, affective desires or wants of people that guide their behavior 

How are values formed/developed within individuals? We like to think that our values are unique to us and an essential part of who we are. The critical question here is, how much of our values are derived from our reference group affiliation? We find that for most people, their values are generally consistent with the values of the reference group in which they were socialized. There are two kinds of values: 
A. Instrumental values represent the “means” an individual prefers for achieving important “ends.” 
B. Terminal values are preferences concerning “ends” to be achieved. When an individual can no long answer the question of “ 

These components of culture have a well – defined linkage with each other which binds a culture and makes change in any one of the components difficult. However, change in any one of these components causes chain reactions amongst others. 

Culture is a very powerful force at the workplace, which is consciously and deliberately cultivated and is passed on to the incoming employees. It reflects the true nature and personality of an organisation. 

There are various myths about organisational culture. Some of them are presented here along with the counter arguments. 
1. Organisational culture is same as organisational climate : In management literature there is often ambiguity about the two concepts – organisational culture and organisational climate. As explained earlier, organisational culture is a macro phenomenon which refers to the patterns of beliefs, assumptions, values, and behaviours reflecting commonality in people working together. However, organisational climate is a micro phenomenon and reflects how employees in an organisation feel about the characteristics and quality of culture like morale, goodwill, employee relations, job satisfaction, commitmrnt at the organisational, department or unit level. It refers to the psychological enviornment in which behaviour of organisational members occurs. It is a relatively persistent set of perceptions held by organisational members about the organisational culture. Another viewpoint about climate is that various variables get subsumed under the concept of climate, whereas has unique indicators like symbols, rites, myths, and stories. 

2. Culture is same as ‘groupthink’ : Since culture refers to shared assumptions and beliefs, it is likely to cause confusion. Groupthink refers to group members hiding any differences in how they feel and think and behave in a certain way. The phenomenon of groupthink is mostly used in a face – to – face situation when dealing with small groups. Culture, on the other hand, is a much larger phenomenon characterised by historical myths, symbols, beliefs, and artifacts. 

3. Culture is same as organisation : Culture is a result of sustained interaction among people in organisations and exists commonly in thoughts, feelings, and behaviour of people. Organisations on the other hand, consist of a set of expectations and a system of reward and punishment substained by rules, regulations, and norms of behaviour. 

4. Culture is a social structure : Social structures in various collectives exhibit tangible and specific ways in which people relate to one another overtly. However, culture operates on a system of unseen, abstract, and emotionally loaded forms which guide organisational members to deal with their physical and social needs. 

The culture of an organisation may reflect in various forms adopted by the organisation. These could be : 

  • The physical infrastructure 
  • Routine behaviour, langauge, ceremonies 
  • Gender equality, equity in payment 
  • Dominant values such as quality, efficiency and so on 
  • Philosophy that guides the organisation’s policies towards it employees and customers like ‘customer first’ and ‘customer is king’, and the manner in which employees deal with customers. 


Individually none of these connote organisational culture, however, together, they reflect organisational culture. Although organisational culture has common properties, it is found that large organisations have a dominant culture and a number of sub – cultures. The core values shared by the majority of the organisational members constitute the dominant culture. Therefore, whenever one refers to the culture of an organisation one actually talks about the dominant culture of an organisation one actually talks about the dominant culture. Subcultures within an organisation are a set of shared understandings among members of one group/department/geographic operations.

For example, the finance department of an organisation may have a sub – culture which is unique to this department vis–a–vis other departments. This means that this department will not only have the core values of the organisation’s dominant culture but also some unique values. If an organisation does not have a dominant culture and is comprised only of various sub – cultures, its effectiveness would be difficult to judge and there will be no consistency of behaviour among departments. Hence, the aspect of common or shared understanding is an essential component of organisational culture. Also, organisational culture exists at various levels.

Types of Organizational Culture 
Organisational culture can vary in a number of ways. It is these variances that differentiate one organisation from the others. Some of the bases of the differentiation are presented below : 

1. Strong vs weak culture : Organisational culture can be labelled as strong or weak based on sharedness of the core values among organisational members and the degree of commitment the members have to these core values. The higher the sharedness and commitment, the stronger the culture increases the possibility of behaviour consistency amongst its members, while a weak culture opens avenues for each one of the members showing concerns unique to themselves. 

2. Soft vs hard culture : Soft work culture can emerge in an organisation where the organisation pursues multiple and conflicting goals. In a soft culture the employees choose to pursue a few objectives which serve personal or sectional interests. A typical example of soft culture can be found in a number of public sector organisations in India where the management feels constrained to take action against employees to maintain high productivity. The culture is welfare oriented; people are held accountable for their mistakes but are not rewarded for good performance. Consequently, the employees consider work to be less important than personal and social obligations. Sinha (1990) has presented a case study of a public sector fertilizer company which was established in an industrially backward rural area to promote employment generation and industrial activity. Under pressure from local communities and the government, the company succumbed to overstaffing, converting mechanised operations into manual operations, payment of overtime, and poor discipline. This resulted in huge financial losses (up to 60 percent of the capital) to the company. 

3. Formal vs informal culture : The work culture of an organisation, to a large extent, is influenced by the formal components of organisational culture. Roles, responsibilities, accountability, rules and regulations are components of formal culture. They set the expectations that the organisation has from every member and indicates the consequences if these expectations are not fulfilled.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Labels

1st Sem (common) Subjects (150) 1st Sem BBA (10) 2nd Sem (common) Subjects (70) 2nd Sem BBA (10) 3rd Sem Banking Management (30) 3rd Sem BBA (8) 3rd Sem core/common subjects (37) 3rd Sem Environmental Management (2) 3rd Sem Event Management (8) 3rd Sem Finance Management (113) 3rd Sem HEALTH SERVICE MANAGEMENT (HSM/HCS) (65) 3rd Sem Human Resource Management (98) 3rd Sem Information Systems Management (8) 3rd Sem International Business (34) 3rd Sem Marketing Management (129) 3rd Sem Operations Management (8) 3rd Sem Project Management (103) 3rd Sem Retail Operations Management (8) 3rd Sem Supply Chain Management (SCM) (16) 3rd Sem Total Quality Management (TQM) (16) 4th Sem Banking Management (38) 4th Sem core/common subjects (65) 4th Sem Event Management (8) 4th Sem Finance Management (8) 4th Sem HEALTH SERVICE MANAGEMENT (HSM/HCS) (21) 4th Sem Human Resource Management (104) 4th Sem Information Systems Management (8) 4th Sem International Business (12) 4th Sem Marketing Management (8) 4th Sem Operations Management (37) 4th Sem Project Management (56) 4th Sem Retail Operations Management (8) 4th Sem Supply Chain Management (SCM) (8) 4th Sem Total Quality Management (TQM) (8) BBA101 - Communication Skills (2) BBA101 Set1 (1) BBA101 Set2 (1) BBA102 - Organization Behaviour (2) BBA102 Set1 (1) BBA102 Set2 (1) BBA103 - Business Environment (2) BBA103 Set1 (1) BBA103 Set2 (1) BBA104 - Quantitative Techniques in Business (2) BBA104 Set1 (1) BBA104 Set2 (1) BBA105 - Computer Fundamentals (2) BBA105 Set1 (1) BBA105 Set2 (1) BBA201 - Research Methods (2) BBA201 Set1 (1) BBA201 Set2 (1) BBA202 - Business Strategy (2) BBA202 Set1 (1) BBA202 Set2 (1) BBA203 - Financial Accounting (2) BBA203 Set1 (1) BBA203 Set2 (1) BBA204 - Marketing Management (2) BBA204 Set1 (1) BBA204 Set2 (1) BBA205 - Management Information Systems (2) BBA205 Set1 (1) BBA205 Set2 (1) BBA301 - Legal and Regulatory Framework (2) BBA301 Set1 (1) BBA301 Set2 (1) BBA302 - Human Resource Management (2) BBA302 Set1 (1) BBA302 Set2 (1) BBA303 - Quality Management (2) BBA303 Set1 (1) BBA303 Set2 (1) BBA304 - Advertising and sales (2) BBA304 Set1 (1) BBA304 Set2 (1) Differences between Managers and Leaders (1) EM0001 - Fundamentals of Environment (2) EM0001 Set1 (1) EM0001 Set2 (1) ET0001 - Human resource management for events (2) ET0001 Set1 (1) ET0001 Set2 (1) ET0002 - Corporate Event Project Management (2) ET0002 Set1 (1) ET0002 Set2 (1) ET0003 - Event marketing and management (2) ET0003 Set1 (1) ET0003 Set2 (1) ET0004 - Event Finance Management (2) ET0004 Set1 (1) ET0004 Set2 (1) ET0006 - Event Risk Management (2) ET0006 Set1 (1) ET0006 Set2 (1) ET0007 - Entrepreneurship (2) ET0007 Set1 (1) ET0007 Set2 (1) ET0008 - Special Events (2) ET0008 Set1 (1) ET0008 Set2 (1) ET0009 - Event Management for Tourism (2) ET0009 Set1 (1) ET0009 Set2 (1) IB0010 - International Financial Management (9) IB0010 Set1 (7) IB0010 Set2 (2) IB0011 - International Marketing (9) IB0011 Set1 (2) IB0011 Set2 (7) IB0012 - Management of Multinational Corporations (8) IB0012 Set1 (7) IB0012 Set2 (1) IB0013 - Export-Import Management (8) IB0013 Set1 (7) IB0013 Set2 (1) IB0015 - Foreign Trade of India (6) IB0015 Set1 (3) IB0015 Set2 (3) IB0016 - International Logistics and Distribution Management (2) IB0016 Set1 (1) IB0016 Set2 (1) IB0017 - International Business Environment and International Law (2) IB0017 Set1 (1) IB0017 Set2 (1) IB0018 - Export Import Finance (2) IB0018 Set1 (1) IB0018 Set2 (1) MA0036 - Financial Systems and Commercial Banking (14) MA0036 Set1 (7) MA0036 Set2 (7) MA0037 - Banking Related Laws and Practices (12) MA0037 Set1 (6) MA0037 Set2 (6) MA0038 - Banking Operations (2) MA0038 Set1 (1) MA0038 Set2 (1) MA0039 - Retail Banking (2) MA0039 Set1 (1) MA0039 Set2 (1) MA0040 (1) MA0041 - Merchant Banking and Financial Services (5) MA0041 Set1 (3) MA0041 Set2 (2) MA0042 - Treasury Management (14) MA0042 Set1 (7) MA0042 Set2 (7) MA0043 - Corporate Banking (9) MA0043 Set1 (5) MA0043 Set2 (4) MA0044 - Institutional Banking (10) MA0044 Set1 (8) MA0044 Set2 (2) MB0038 - Management Process and Organization Behavior (24) MB0038 Set1 (16) MB0038 Set2 (9) MB0039 - Business Communication (24) MB0039 Set1 (15) MB0039 Set2 (9) MB0040 - STATISTICS FOR MANAGEMENT (24) MB0040 Set1 (15) MB0040 Set2 (9) MB0041 - Financial Management and Accounting (24) MB0041 Set1 (15) MB0041 Set2 (9) MB0042 - Managerial Economics (30) MB0042 Set1 (15) MB0042 Set2 (15) MB0043 - Human Resource Management (24) MB0043 Set1 (15) MB0043 Set2 (9) MB0044 - PRODUCTION and OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT (16) MB0044 Set1 (8) MB0044 Set2 (8) MB0045 - Financial Management (9) MB0045 Set1 (7) MB0045 Set2 (2) MB0046 - Marketing Management (10) MB0046 Set1 (8) MB0046 Set2 (2) MB0047 - MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS (15) MB0047 Set1 (8) MB0047 Set2 (7) MB0048 - OPERATIONS RESEARCH (10) MB0048 Set1 (8) MB0048 Set2 (2) MB0049 - Project Management (10) MB0049 Set1 (8) MB0049 Set2 (2) MB0050 - Research Methodology (20) MB0050 Set1 (10) MB0050 Set2 (10) MB0051 - Legal Aspects of Business (17) MB0051 Set1 (13) MB0051 Set2 (4) MB0052 - Strategic Management and Business Policy (30) MB0052 Set1 (15) MB0052 Set2 (15) MB0053 - International Business Management (35) MB0053 Set1 (19) MB0053 Set2 (16) MF0010 - Security Analysis and Portfolio Management (39) MF0010 Set1 (21) MF0010 Set2 (18) MF0011 - Mergers and Acquisitions (24) MF0011 Set1 (14) MF0011 Set2 (10) MF0012 - Taxation Management (25) MF0012 Set1 (16) MF0012 Set2 (9) MF0013 - Internal Audit and Control (25) MF0013 Set1 (16) MF0013 Set2 (9) MF0014 (1) MF0015 - International Financial Management (2) MF0015 Set1 (1) MF0015 Set2 (1) MF0016 - Treasury Management (2) MF0016 Set1 (1) MF0016 Set2 (1) MF0017 - Merchant Banking and Financial Services (2) MF0017 Set1 (1) MF0017 Set2 (1) MF0018 - Insurance and Risk Management (2) MF0018 Set1 (1) MF0018 Set2 (1) MH0051 - Health Administration (15) MH0051 Set1 (5) MH0051 Set2 (10) MH0052 - Hospital Organisation Operations and Planning (26) MH0052 Set1 (12) MH0052 Set2 (14) MH0053 - Hospital and Healthcare Information Management (11) MH0053 Set1 (3) MH0053 Set2 (8) MH0054 - Finance Economics and Planning in HCS (13) MH0054 Set1 (10) MH0054 Set2 (3) MH0055 (1) MH0056 - Public Relations and Marketing for Healthcare Organisation (6) MH0056 Set1 (3) MH0056 Set2 (3) MH0057 - Management of Healthcare Human Resources (5) MH0057 Set1 (2) MH0057 Set2 (3) MH0058 - Legal Aspects in Healthcare Administration (5) MH0058 Set1 (3) MH0058 Set2 (2) MH0059 - Quality Management in HCS (5) MH0059 Set1 (3) MH0059 Set2 (2) MI0014 (1) MI0033 - Software Engineering (2) MI0033 Set1 (1) MI0033 Set2 (1) MI0034 - Database Management System (2) MI0034 Set1 (1) MI0034 Set2 (1) MI0035 - Computer Network (2) MI0035 Set1 (1) MI0035 Set2 (1) MI0036 - BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE TOOLS (2) MI0036 Set1 (1) MI0036 Set2 (1) MI0038 - Enterprise Resource Planning (2) MI0038 Set1 (1) MI0038 Set2 (1) MI0039 - eCommerce (2) MI0039 Set1 (1) MI0039 Set2 (1) MI0040 - Technology Management (2) MI0040 Set1 (1) MI0040 Set2 (1) MI0041 - Java and Web Design (2) MI0041 Set1 (1) MI0041 Set2 (1) MK0010 - Sales Distribution and Supply Chain Management (33) MK0010 Set1 (17) MK0010 Set2 (16) MK0011 - Consumer Behaviour (31) MK0011 Set1 (16) MK0011 Set2 (15) MK0012 - Retail Marketing (42) MK0012 Set1 (20) MK0012 Set2 (22) MK0013 - Market Research (23) MK0013 Set1 (12) MK0013 Set2 (11) MK0014 (1) MK0015 - Service Marketing And Customer Relationship Management (2) MK0015 Set1 (1) MK0015 Set2 (1) MK0016 - Advertising Management and Sales Promotion (2) MK0016 Set1 (1) MK0016 Set2 (1) MK0017 - eMarketing (2) MK0017 Set1 (1) MK0017 Set2 (1) MK0018 - International Marketing (2) MK0018 Set1 (1) MK0018 Set2 (1) ML0010 - Warehousing and Supply Chain Management (2) ML0010 Set1 (1) ML0010 Set2 (1) ML0011 - Buying and Merchandising (2) ML0011 Set1 (1) ML0011 Set2 (1) ML0012 - Store Operations (2) ML0012 Set1 (1) ML0012 Set2 (1) ML0013 - Retail IT Management (2) ML0013 Set1 (1) ML0013 Set2 (1) ML0014 (1) ML0015 - Services Marketing and Customer Relationship Management (2) ML0015 Set1 (1) ML0015 Set2 (1) ML0016 - Advertising Management and Sales Promotion (2) ML0016 Set1 (1) ML0016 Set2 (1) ML0017 - Mall Management (2) ML0017 Set1 (1) ML0017 Set2 (1) ML0018 - Project Management in Retail (2) ML0018 Set1 (1) ML0018 Set2 (1) MU0010 - Manpower Planning and Resourcing (31) MU0010 Set1 (16) MU0010 Set2 (15) MU0011 - Management and Organizational Development (20) MU0011 Set1 (10) MU0011 Set2 (10) MU0012 - Employee Relations Management (22) MU0012 Set1 (11) MU0012 Set2 (11) MU0013 - Human Resource Audit (25) MU0013 Set1 (15) MU0013 Set2 (10) MU0014 (1) MU0015 - Compensation Benefits (24) MU0015 Set1 (14) MU0015 Set2 (10) MU0016 - Performance Management and Appraisal (27) MU0016 Set1 (12) MU0016 Set2 (15) MU0017 - Talent Management and Employee Retention (24) MU0017 Set1 (12) MU0017 Set2 (12) MU0018 - Change Management (29) MU0018 Set1 (9) MU0018 Set2 (20) OM0010 - Operations Management (2) OM0010 Set1 (1) OM0010 Set2 (1) OM0011 - Enterprise Resource Planning (2) OM0011 Set1 (1) OM0011 Set2 (1) OM0012 - Supply Chain Management (2) OM0012 Set1 (1) OM0012 Set2 (1) OM0013 - Advanced Production and Operations Management (2) OM0013 Set1 (1) OM0013 Set2 (1) OM0014 (1) OM0015 - Maintenance Management (6) OM0015 Set1 (3) OM0015 Set2 (3) OM0016 - Quality Management (11) OM0016 Set1 (8) OM0016 Set2 (3) OM0017 - Advanced Production and Planning Control (11) OM0017 Set1 (3) OM0017 Set2 (8) OM0018 - Technology Management (9) OM0018 Set1 (7) OM0018 Set2 (2) PM0010 - Introduction to Project Management (26) PM0010 Set1 (14) PM0010 Set2 (12) PM0011 - Project Planning and Scheduling (25) PM0011 Set1 (14) PM0011 Set2 (11) PM0012 - Project Financing and Budgeting (26) PM0012 Set1 (14) PM0012 Set2 (12) PM0013 - Managing Human Resources in Projects (26) PM0013 Set1 (13) PM0013 Set2 (14) PM0014 (1) PM0015 - Quantitative Methods in Project Management (14) PM0015 Set1 (8) PM0015 Set2 (6) PM0016 - Project Risk Management (14) PM0016 Set1 (7) PM0016 Set2 (7) PM0017 - Project Quality Management (14) PM0017 Set1 (7) PM0017 Set2 (7) PM0018 - Contracts Management in Projects (14) PM0018 Set1 (7) PM0018 Set2 (7) Project (1) QM0010 - Foundations of Quality Management (4) QM0010 Set1 (2) QM0010 Set2 (2) QM0011 - Principles and Philosophies of Quality Management (4) QM0011 Set1 (2) QM0011 Set2 (2) QM0012 - Statistical Process Control and Process Capability (4) QM0012 Set1 (2) QM0012 Set2 (2) QM0013 - Quality Management Tools (4) QM0013 Set1 (2) QM0013 Set2 (2) QM0014 (1) QM0015 - ISO/QS 9000 Elements (2) QM0015 Set1 (1) QM0015 Set2 (1) QM0016 - Managing Quality in the Organization (2) QM0016 Set1 (1) QM0016 Set2 (1) QM0017 - Quality Management System (2) QM0017 Set1 (1) QM0017 Set2 (1) QM0018 - Quality Development Methods (2) QM0018 Set1 (1) QM0018 Set2 (1) SC0001 - Supply Chain Management (4) SC0001 Set1 (2) SC0001 Set2 (2) SC0002 - Outsourcing (4) SC0002 Set1 (2) SC0002 Set2 (2) SC0003 - Food Supply Chain Management (4) SC0003 Set1 (2) SC0003 Set2 (2) SC0004 - Inventory Management (4) SC0004 Set1 (2) SC0004 Set2 (2) SC0006 - Global Logistics and Supply Chain Management (2) SC0006 Set1 (1) SC0006 Set2 (1) SC0007 - Category Management in Purchasing (2) SC0007 Set1 (1) SC0007 Set2 (1) SC0008 - Purchasing and Contracting for Projects (2) SC0008 Set1 (1) SC0008 Set2 (1) SC0009 - Supply Chain Cost Management (2) SC0009 Set1 (1) SC0009 Set2 (1) SMU BBA Subjects (1) SMU MBA/PGDBA Subjects (1)

Visitor Count (since Jan 2019)