October 21, 2018

MU0011 [Management and Organizational Development] Set1 Q6

Q6) Write a note on designing interventions.

Ans:

Designing OD interventions needs to pay attention to the needs and dynamics of the change situation and developing a change program that will be consistent with the previously described criteria of effective interventions. Current OD knowledge and practices can provide only a general prescription for change for the better. There is very little input or information on how to design interventions. There is also no research to show how the interventions are expected to interact with organizational situations to achieve specific results. Also the effectiveness of a particular intervention is higher or lower depending on the practitioner’s expertise and comfort with that intervention. 

Therefore the design of an intervention depends on the situation and the expertise of the practitioner. The last factor that impacts the design of the OD intervention is the target of change. In summary, there are 3 key factors affecting the designing of interventions.
1. The situation
2. The practitioner’s competencies (knowledge and skill)
3. The target at the end of the intervention

Choosing interventions that are well-matched to local needs and capabilities, and then carefully implementing those interventions, are vital steps for increasing healthy eating and active living. Designing effective interventions requires that you use all that has been accomplished and learned about the community throughout the planning process in terms of needs, resources, and interests. 

A comprehensive intervention action plan: 
Includes the use of multiple strategies, such as educational, policy, and environmental strategies, within various settings, such as the community, health care delivery system, schools, and worksites. 
Targets the community-at-large as well as subgroups within the community. 
Includes various activities to meet the community’s levels of readiness. 

When considering intervention components and strategies, lessons learned from what has worked in the past can provide a valuable foundation for future work. Those strategies, activities, and approaches that research and evaluation have found to be effective in promoting public health are called “best practices”. Reviewing these best practices and model programs saves communities from “reinventing the wheel” and gives immediate direction to program planning. Information about best practices and model programs can help the community determine how to proceed with the specifics of developing its interventions (e.g., whom to involve, which levels should be targeted first, sequence of events and activities). Provided as support material to illustrate current examples and recommended healthy eating active living interventions is:

Intervention strategies: 
To be effective, intervention plans should use educational, policy, and environmental strategies. Together the three intervention strategies can be helpful in changing knowledge, attitudes, skills, behavior, policies and environmental factors to improve the health and well-being of the community. Examples of activities that might be included under each strategy are as follows: 
Educational Strategies: Communication and skill-building.
o Communication methods: media advocacy, lecture-discussion, print materials, audiovisual aids, educational television, and programmed learning.
o Training methods: classes to develop skills, simulations and games, small-group discussions.

Policy Strategies: Policies, regulations, laws as well as informal rules and understandings of government and local organizations. 
o Policies designed to restrict or limit unhealthy actions.
o Policies designed to encourage healthy eating and active living: flex time at worksites for employees to engage in physical activity or extended hours to use community recreational facilities.

Environmental Strategies: Physical or social environmental changes.
o Adding more street lights to discourage crime and encourage physical activity.
o Converting railroad beds into walking trails
o Constructing shower facilities at worksites for employees who exercise

Program Settings: 
The intervention strategies in a community health promotion program are most effective when done in as many of the following settings as appropriate. These settings serve as channels through which you can reach your target group as well as sites for using educational, policy, and environmental strategies. 

School: Schools can be viewed as the most important setting for ultimately educating the entire population and more immediately for educating children and youth. A comprehensive school health program can be conducted in schools, and projects can be assigned that require parental involvement, thus educating parents. 

Health care Delivery System: Including hospitals, clinics, and offices. Health care providers can lend expertise and credibility to your intervention efforts. They can also provide preventive education change. They can also refer patients to health promotion services in the community and distribute health promotion materials. 

Worksite: Work settings and coworkers have a substantial impact on one’s health; educational programs and policy and environmental actions that support health can be beneficial to both management and employees. Schools and health care facilities, are also worksites. 

Community: Including the entire community, public facilities such as parks, local agencies, and social, service, faith, and civic organizations. The community has many organizations, groups, and public facilities that can serve as settings for interventions designed to reach people where they shop and play. These groups can examine how they function and also serve as strong advocates for educational, policy, and environmental changes within the community. 

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