November 24, 2012

MA0044 [Institutional Banking] Set1 Q2

Q.2 Discuss role of NABARD for promoting microfinance.

Ans.

NABARD is set up as an apex development bank with a mandate for facilitating credit flow for promotion and development of agriculture, small scale industries, cottage and village industries, handicrafts and other rural crafts. It also has the mandate to support all other allied economic activities in rural areas, promote integrated and sustainable rural development and secure prosperity of rural areas.

In its role as an apex institution for microfinance, NABARD’s strategy is to emphasis on regular thrift collection and its use to solve immediate problems of consumption and production not only helps to meet their most urgent needs, but also trains them to handle larger financial resources more skillfully, prudently and with a more lasting impact. It encourages SHGs to become a forum for many social sector interventions.

The launching of its Pilot phase of the SHG bank linkage programme in February 1992 could be considered as a landmark development in banking with the poor. The SHG-informal thrift and credit groups of poor came to be recognized as bank clients under the Pilot phase. subsequently, bank credit also becomes available to the group, to augment its resources for lending to its members. NABARD views the promotion and bank linking of SHGs not as a credit programme but as part of an overall arrangement for providing financial services to the poor in a sustainable manner and also an empowerment process for the members of these SHGs.

SHG Bank Linkage Program
It facilitates SHGs to access credit from formal banking channels. The programme has proved to be the major supplementary credit delivery system with wide acceptance by banks, NGOs and various government departments.

Capacity Building 
NABARD sponsors capacity building programmes for various partners in the field of microfinance to sensitise and equip them with concept & nuances of SHG bank linkage programme.
It provides training inputs on SHG financing to training establishments of participating banks, to help them to internalise the training requirements at their level.
It gives technical support to banks to evolve suitable intermediate structures like Framers’ Clubs to increase the outreach of their branches in promotion and linking SHGs.
It supports and helps banking institutions to take on the role of self help promoting institutions.

Support to Governments
Necessary assistance is provided to the government by NABARD for dovetailing microfinance practices with the poverty alleviation programmes.
It also encourages the association of Panchayati Raj Institutions in adopting group processes for maximization of empowerment.
NABARD, in association with Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration, Mussoorie conducts tailor made exposure programme on self help group and microfinance for senior and middle level officers of Indian Administrative Services who are posted as district collectors/chief Executive Officers of local administrative set ups.

Support to NGO Partners
Several steps have been by NABARD for capacity building of NGOs which partner in promotion and nurturing of SHGs. The emphasis is on involving a large number of NGOs. Special focus is on those NGOs participating in watershed development, health, literacy and women development, to encourage them to take up promotion, nurturing and linkage of SHGs as an ’add-on’ activity. 
It has a scheme of part-financing the cost of promotion of groups by NGOs.
It has developed specialized programmes for use by CEOs of NGOs for appropriately envisioning this as an add-on concept. Separate programmers have also been designed for NGO field staff to appreciate the nuances of SHG functioning.

Alternate practices 
The NGOs and other local bodies at village, block and district levels in the North Eastern States are encouraged to take up alternative micro credit delivery mechanisms through direct funding.
Formation and operation of SHG Federations is supported and encouraged by NABARD. Similarly, networking of NGOs is also encouraged.

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